OCT is a noninvasive system that allows for cross-sectional imaging in vivo, using light waves, which are akin to the sound waves in ultrasonography. The purpose of this article is to discuss the interpretations and limitations of OCT imaging. Hydroxychloroquine 200 mg uses in hindi Can plaquenil cause drusen Plaquenil lupus mechanism Medications like plaquenil and chloroquine can induce degenerative changes in the ganglion cells and photoreceptor cells of the retina. DEFINITION Toxic maculopathy is a form of retinal toxicity that is associated with antimalarial agents such as plaquenil and chloroquine. The latest guidelines on monitoring a patient on plaquenil plus a few cases. CASE. 54 YEAR OLD. GANGLION CELL LAYER FIRST AFFECTED FOLLOWED BY OUTER RETINA DAMAGE THEN THE BULL’S EYE. After establishing baseline screening for toxicity on an annual basis should be continued no later than 5 years after starting the medication BUT CAUTION. May 01, 2015 Thinning or loss of the inner retinal layers and not only the nerve fiber and ganglion cell layer can imply prior disease, such as an ischemic branch retinal vein occlusion or a branch retinal artery occlusion. Loss of the RPE can be indicative of atrophy in patients with age-related macular degeneration. Low-coherence interferometry was then adapted for use in OCT. The initial application of low-coherence interferometry in ophthalmology was for measurements of axial length. Ganglion cell layer and plaquenil toxicity Effects of chronic exposure to hydroxychloroquine or., Plaquenil Retinotoxicity Updated Guidelines Rheumatoid factor plaquenilHydroxychloroquine sulphate tablets uspPurchase chloroquine tablets in ukDrug interaction domperidone chloroquineChloroquine dosing in infants Risk factors for toxicity. Reported risk factors for toxicity include daily dose 400 mg, or 6.5 mg/kg ideal/lean body weight for short individuals; cumulative dose 1000 g; duration of use 5 years; renal or hepatic dysfunction; obesity; age 60 years; and pre-existing retinal disease or maculopathy 31. Hydroxychloroquine-related retinal toxicity Rheumatology.. Retinal Physician - Appropriate Interpretation of OCT Imaging. A New Objective Parameter in Hydroxychloroquine-Induced.. The parafoveal nerve fiber layer and ganglion cell layer The parafoveal inner plexiform layer. Melles RB,Marmor MF, Pericentral retinopathy and racial differences in hydroxychloroquine toxicity. Ophthalmology. 2015 Jan Melles RB,Marmor MF, The risk of toxic retinopathy in patients on long-term hydroxychloroquine therapy. Previous histopathological studies reported that the initial dramatic changes of hydroxychloroquine toxicity were observed in the retinal ganglion cell layer 18, 19. On the other hand, recent OCT studies have suggested that selective thinning of perifoveal inner plexiform and ganglion cell layers was found in patients treated with long-term hydroxychloroquine. Aug 06, 2014 Hydroxychloroquine, sold under the brand name Plaquenil Sanofi-Aventis, is an antimalarial drug that has gained widespread use in treating various autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis. 1 By some estimates, more than 150,000 patients are on long-term therapy with this medication in America alone. 2 Retinal toxicity associated with HCQ use is relatively rare, estimated at 1 percent after five years and rising with continued therapy. 3 However.