It is a rapidly acting drug, targeting the asexual stage. The mortality rate has increased along with the spread of malaria. p H of food vacuole of plasmodium specie is acidic while chloroquine is a weak base, leading to change in p H of food vacuole. More effective for long term treatment of rheumatoid arthritis as devoid of long term adverse drug reactions, especially eye changes. Use of chloroquine is declining recently due to the fact that most strains have become resistant. It rapidly enters and gets concentrated in food vacuole, present within erythrocytes. If we want to avoid relapse, Primaquine is used to eradicate tissue schizontal activity. Previously used for chemoprophylaxis, now due to development of resistance, chloroquine is not used. Anti-amoebic effect –infection caused by Entamoeba histolytica) Amebic liver abscess (as chloroquine is concentrated in the liver) because: Used for long time for rheumatoid arthritis, but because of associated ocular adverse effects, precaution is taken to have eye examination every 4 to 6 month to check retinal changes. Hydroxychloroquine bull's eye maculopathy dosage Chloroquine and proguanil during pregnancy Apr 24, 2018 Learn about Chloroquine Mechanism of action and resistance in 2 minutes. Presenter Dr. Tanmay Mehta MD, DNB, PGDCTM Onset of Action for Chloroquine 2 - 3 days Duration of Action for Chloroquine 7 days Half Life of Chloroquine 3 - 10 days Side Effects of Chloroquine 1. Nausea 2. Vomiting 3. Diarrhoea 4. Abdominal cramps 5. Pruritis 6. Headache 7. Dizziness 8. Hypotension 9. Visual disturbances Contra-indications of Chloroquine 1. Hypersensitivity to Chloroquine and other 4 Amino quinolines 2. Porphyria Chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine is extruded to the extracellular medium mostly by exocytosis and/or through the action of the multidrug resistance protein MRP-1, a cell surface drug transporter belonging to the ATP-binding cassette family, which also includes the more thoroughly studied P-glycoprotein. Plasmodium develops, multiplies and transforms by utilizing hemoglobin of human erythrocytes. Inhibits phospholipase A2 (used rheumatoid arthritis), chemotaxis is decreased, resulting in decreased proliferation of antigen. Primarily highly effective against febrile illness, relief is quickly achieved within 24 hours. CRTF Another gene involved is chloroquine resistance transporter factor (CRTF) 4. When administered, patient becomes afebrile within 24-48 hours. Resistance has developed in Afghanistan and Khyber Pathtunkhua. Chloroquine mode of action Aralen Chloroquine Uses, Dosage, Side Effects., Chloroquine Pharmacology & Usage Details Medicine India Plaquenil with valium Antimalarial mode of action and resistance. Chloroquine acts exclusively in the erythrocyte stage of malaria parasites. The antimalarial mechanism of action from chloroquine has not been fully elucidated. Many theories have been developed to elucidate the chloroquine mechanism of action, including DNA binding and inhibition of various enzymes and/or transporters. Chloroquine Modes of action of an undervalued drug.. Effects of chloroquine on viral infections an old drug.. Chloroquine mechanism of drug action and resistance in.. Chloroquine has been sporadically used in treating SARS-CoV-2 infection. Hydroxychloroquine shares the same mechanism of action as chloroquine, but its more tolerable safety profile makes it the preferred drug to treat malaria and autoimmune conditions. Mechanism of Action Chloroquine, a 4-aminoquinoline, is an anti-protozoal agent. The precise mechanism by which Chloroquine exhibits activity is not known. Chloroquine, may exert its effect against Plasmodium species by concentrating in the acid vesicles of the parasite and by inhibiting polymerization of heme. It can also inhibit certain enzymes by its interaction with DNA. Chloroquine's mode of action is not entirely clear -- however, it is possible that the drug stops the parasites from reproducing by interfering with their DNA. Click Chloroquine to learn more about the drug's mode of action. This article also tells you about possible side effects, safety warnings, dosing guidelines, and more.