Multifocal electroretinography testing in patient 4 demonstrating progressive generalized reduction in multifocal electroretinography amplitudes in both eyes when comparing responses recorded 2 years (A) after stopping hydroxychloroquine sulfate use with those 3 years later (B). Static visual field testing in patient 4 demonstrating progressive central visual field loss in both eyes, from first presentation (A: 30-2 Humphrey visual field) to 3 years (B: 10-2 Humphrey visual field) after stopping hydroxychloroquine sulfate use. Plaquenil and optic neuropathy Plaquenil for itching What does chloroquine do in transfection Request PDF Risk Factors for Hydroxychloroquine and Chloroquine Retinopathy Over 80 % of patients taking 4-aminoquinolines 4AQs have risk factors for retinopathy. The most important risk. Aug 29, 2014 Several risk factors may increase the likelihood of retinal toxicity from Plaquenil such as, age of greater than 60 years, daily dose more than 6.5 mg/kg; use of the drug more than 5 years, obesity, preexisting retinal disease and, renal or liver failure. A cumulative dose of 1000g of hydroxychloroquine or 460g of chloroquine was likely the largest risk factor, which was typically achieved after 5-7 years of a typical dosage 8, 10. However, there have been case reports of patients with hydroxychloroquine toxicity as early as 1.9 months after starting treatment 11. Central and peripheral visual field defects are more evident on static visual field testing (C) 3 years after cessation of hydroxychloroquine use compared with kinetic testing undertaken at the same visit (B). Kinetic visual field testing in patient 4 demonstrating progressive constriction of the visual field in both eyes for all isopters tested, from 13 months (A) to 3 years (B) after stopping hydroxychloroquine sulfate use. Chloroquine maculopathy risk factors Retinal Toxicity Associated With Hydroxychloroquine and., The Risk of Retinal Toxicity with Plaquenil Hydroxychloroquine pt teachingHydroxychloroquine for bursitis Chiowchanwisawakit P, Nilganuwong S, Srinonprasert V, et al. Prevalence and risk factors for chloroquine maculopathy and role of plasma chloroquine and desethylchloroquine concentrations in predicting chloroquine maculopathy. Int J Rheum Dis. 2013; 16 147–55. Incidence of and risk factors for chloroquine and.. Hydroxychloroquine Plaquenil Toxicity and.. Revised Recommendations on Screening for Chloroquine and.. However, these findings do not explain the clinical pigmentary changes causing a bull’s-eye maculopathy. Medication Dosage. Several factors have been associated with the risk of developing hydroxychloroquine retinopathy. One of the most important appears to be dosage—with debate over whether daily intake vs. cumulative dosage is most. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the incidence and risk factor of toxic maculopathy who treated with hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine due to their autoimmune disease such as rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosus. A recent retrospective study in 51 patients being treated with hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine re-evaluated the potential risk factors. Age and duration continued to be the major risk factors with smoking being negligible and BMI not being an issue.